Well over a thousand years before Darwin, Al-Jahiz came to the conclusion that there must be some mechanisms that influence the evolution of animals. He writes about three main mechanisms; the struggle for existence, the transformation of species into each other, and the environmental factors.
Al-Jahiz was a renowned physician whose medical contributions are documented by the ninth-century historian al-Baladhuri (d. 892). Al-Jahiz is the subject of a long poem by Khalifa ibn Khayyat al-Dimashqi (d. 961). Al-Dimashqi also mentions him in his Hudud al-'Alam (The ample scope), written in 942. Al-Dimashqi gives an account of al-Jahiz' medical work, which included the treatment of leprosy. He also relates that Al-Jahiz was known for his appetite for eating and drinking and that he made his own wine. He was a polyglot, able to read the Syriac, Greek, Latin, and various Arabic dialects, besides Persian. He was also a linguist, historian and poet, philosopher and medical expert, and a master of the Arabic language, which he is said to have written better than any of the Arabists who preceded him. He was also a contemporary of the Arab-language poets Ibn al-Muqaffa (d. 948) and Ibn al-Furwa (d. 951). The latter devoted a whole chapter of his Kitab al-Kunya (The book of aliases) to Al-Jahiz, in which he suggests that al-Jahiz was a notorious thief who relied on his medical skills to help him conceal his forgeries.
The last years of Jahiz's life were spent on political and literary works. He was concerned with the expansion of Islam in Africa and the Arabian peninsula and the teaching of the Qur'an to youths, rather than the memorization of the Qur'an. He believed the study of philosophy was more important than the memorization of the Qur'an.Al-Yafi, al-Hakim, al-Tabaqat al-Kabirah, p. 252.
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