First, the distinction between deductive and inductive arguments is hard to find in much contemporary philosophy. This is despite the fact that, since the mid-twentieth century, it has become customary in introductory philosophy textbooks to present and discuss deductive and inductive arguments in their usual manner as paradigmatic examples of the two types of arguments. This is, perhaps, not surprising. A great many philosophers, especially since the mid-twentieth century, have considered the distinction between deductive and inductive arguments to be fundamental, at the heart of philosophy, and well worth its time and effort to investigate. Whether this is, in fact, the case will be considered below.
Second, it can be difficult to distinguish arguments in ordinary, everyday discourse as clearly either deductive or inductive. As will be seen below, this blurring tends to be pervasive and may be quite substantial. This, too, is perhaps not surprising. As discussed in more detail below, the distinction between deductive and inductive arguments is a recent philosophical invention, having arisen in the latter part of the nineteenth century. It is, by contrast, much older in practice and very much part of ordinary, everyday speech. Consequently, the distinction between deductive and inductive arguments is seldom articulated, rarely even implicitly invoked, in ordinary, everyday discourse. Even if it is, it is hard for some to know what it means to apply the right evaluative standards to ordinary, everyday arguments, no matter how benign they may appear to be. This fact, too, is not surprising.
Finally, the distinction between deductive and inductive arguments can also be difficult to discern even if it is drawn out in all its fullness in everyday discourse. The two types of argument can be distinguished in a number of ways. But no single, clearly marked, binary distinction is available, as will be seen below.
Given that the distinction between deductive and inductive arguments is hard to find in contemporary philosophy and that it is easy to blur it in everyday, ordinary discourse, it is not entirely clear what is at issue. It may be that the relevant issue is not the distinction between the two types of arguments but the evaluative standards employed in assessing them. This is, indeed, a possibility.
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