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The findings from our study suggest polymorphisms in V1R genes may be controlled by estradiol and testosterone. The findings also suggest that polymorphisms in the V2R receptor may function to modulate the sensitivity of the heifers. Altered expression of V1R or V2R genes could affect the heifers’ ability to detect a pheromone, and thus affect the ability of heifers to feel socially attracted to their herd mates. Furthermore, the V2R receptormay play a role in the ability to detect androstenone, thereby affecting the reproductive success of males. Understanding the effects of sex steroid hormones on V1R and V2R genes in cattle could be used to improve artificial insemination success. For example, the effect of sex steroids on V1R and V2R genes could be used to improve the ability of bulls to detect the estrous odor of heifers. Likewise, research on androgen function may improve the reproductive success of males by manipulating the effect of sex steroids on heifers’ ability to detect the odor of their herd mates. Finally, manipulation of sex steroids may improve the ability of heifers to detect their herd mates’ urine. Further experiments are required to test the hypothesis that polymorphisms in V1R or V2R genes may be controlled by estradiol and testosterone in cattle and to further investigate the effect of sex steroids on the ability to detect urine pheromone. We found no previously published data on polymorphisms in the V1R and V2R genes in cattle; however, anandrogen, progesterone, and estrogen have been shown to affect V1R gene expression in mice [2, 5, 15]. The impact of sex steroids on V1R and V2R gene expression in cattle is an active area of investigation and is currently being investigated in our laboratory. Our findings suggest that polymorphisms in V1R and V2R genes may affect the social behavior of cattle, thereby altering the productivity of the herd.
This work was supported by the National Institute of Food and Agriculture, U.S. Department of Agriculture, under Agreement No. 2009-35205-05721. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the view of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. 827ec27edc